list of mental conditions
Mental health issues are not matters of opinion. They are medical conditions that arise due to a complex mix of chemistry, environment, and genetics. In other words, mental health conditions are much like physical health conditions. Both come about due to issues that may or may not be under a person’s control. Both can be addressed, to some degree, with the proper treatment program.
Tests for Diagnosing Mental Illness
- Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)
- Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
- Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale
- Center for Epidemiological Studies—Depression (CES-D)
- Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A)
- Penn State Worry Questionnaire
- Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale
- Schizophrenia Test and Early Psychosis Indicator (STEP)
- Goldberg Bipolar Spectrum Screening Questionnaire
- Dissociative Experiences Scale
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The right treatment program begins with the right diagnosis. When teams know exactly what is causing a mental health issue, they can know what to do to help ease symptoms. There are a variety of tested and proven tests doctors can use to help their clients when they seem to be struggling with mental health concerns. These are 10 of the mental health tests doctors have at their disposal:
- Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9): This is a screening test clinicians can use for people who might be struggling with depression. According to an overview article in the, the test consists of nine different questions, and each question is based on a manual called the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. This is the manual doctors use when they are actively diagnosing someone with a mental illness. The PHQ-9 simply allows people to answer questions that can uncover whether or not they are facing the symptoms they would need to have to get a depression diagnosis per the DSM. People taking this test are asked a series of questions about how they feel, how they have been reacting to the world, and what they think about the future. They can answer each question with a “0, ” which indicates that they do not agree with the statement. Or, they can answer with a “3, ” which indicates that they would agree with the statement every day. Answers of “2, ” which are in the middle, are also acceptable.
- Beck Depression Inventory (BDI): This test contains 21 questions, according to the American Psychological Association (APA), and it is designed to help clinicians spot symptoms of depression in the people who visit them for care. The test can be administered in a number of different formats. Doctors can read questions aloud; they can ask people to type answers into a computer; or they can hold up a series of flash cards and ask clients to respond to those cards. There are also versions of this test that contain fewer questions, for those who cannot tolerate a longer interview. The APA says that consistency levels for the BDI are in the 0.86 range, which indicates that this test is quite good at uncovering depression issues.
- Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale: This is yet another test for depression, and according to the World Health Organization (WHO), it is widely used. There are 20 questions on the test, all relating to how someone feels and the depression symptoms the person might be experiencing. There are many questions to answer, and they can seem a little repetitive, but the test only takes about 10 minutes to complete. Each question demands a graded response, on a scale of 1 to 4, with higher numbers associated with a greater level of agreement. WHO says most people who have depression score between 50 and 69 on this test, but people who have severe depression might get scores of 70 or even higher.
- Center for Epidemiological Studies—Depression (CES-D): Depression is a common mental health condition that could impact almost anyone. That is why, in part, there are so many different tests for depression. Since it strikes so often, doctors need a number of different tools to spot the changes and deliver relief. But sometimes, depression hits a specific type of person, and that person might benefit from a test made just for them and their unique needs. This is one such test. The CES-D is designed to help people who work as caregivers. There are 20 questions on this test, APA says, and it was designed with caregivers in mind. Questions revolve around depression symptoms, such as loss of appetite or feeling lonely, and answers can run on a scale from 1 to 3. Higher numbers indicate a higher affinity with the statement.
- Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A): People who have anxiety disorders may struggle with attacks, in which they are plagued by severe symptoms for...