Physiological Disorder Definition
FOD is the persistent or recurrent inability of a woman to achieve orgasm. This lack of response affects the quality of the woman's sexual experiences. To understand FOD, it is first necessary to understand the physiological changes that normally take place in a woman's body during sexual arousal and orgasm.
Normally, when a woman is sexually excited, the blood vessels in the pelvic area expand, allowing more blood to flow to the genitals. This is followed by the seepage of fluid out of blood vessels and into the vagina to provide lubrication before and during intercourse. These events are called the "lubrication-swelling response."
Body tension and blood flow to the pelvic area continue to build as a woman receives more sexual stimulation; this occurs either by direct pressure on the clitoris or as pressure on the walls of the vagina and cervix. This tension builds as blood flow increases. When tension is released, pleasurable rhythmic contractions of the uterus and vagina occur; this release is called an "orgasm." The contractions carry blood away from the genital area and back into general circulation.
It is normal for orgasms to vary in intensity, length, and number of contractions from woman to woman, as well as in a single individual from experience to experience. Unlike men, woman can have multiple orgasms in a short period of time. Mature women, who may be more sexually experienced than younger women, may find it easier to have orgasms than adolescents or the sexually inexperienced.
In FOD, sexual arousal and lubrication occur. Body tension builds, but the woman is unable or has extreme difficulty reaching climax and releasing the tension. This inability can lead to frustration and unfulfilling sexual experiences for both partners. FOD often occurs in conjunction with other . Also, lack of orgasm can cause anger, frustration, and other problems in the relationship.
Causes and symptoms
With FOD, a woman either does not have an orgasm or has extreme difficulty regularly reaching climax. It is normal for women to lack this response occasionally, or to have an orgasm only with specific types of stimulation. The occasional failure to be reach orgasm or dependence on a particular type of stimulation is not the same as FOD.
The causes of FOD can be both physical and psychological. FOD is most often a primary or lifelong disorder, meaning that a woman has never achieved orgasm under any type of stimulation, including self-stimulation (masturbation), direct stimulation of the clitoris by a partner, or vaginal intercourse. Some women experience secondary, or acquired FOD. These women have had orgasms, but lose the ability after illness, emotional trauma, or as a side effect of surgery or medication. Acquired FOD is often temporary.
FOD can be generalized or situation-specific. In generalized FOD, the failure to have an orgasm occurs with different partners and in many different settings. In situational FOD, inability to reach climax occurs only with specific partners or under particular circumstances. FOD may be due either to psychological factors or a combination of physiological and psychological factors, but not due to physiological factors alone.
Physiological causes of FOD include:
- damage to the blood vessels of the pelvic region
- spinal cord lesions or damage to the nerves in the pelvic area
- side effects of medications (antipsychotics, antidepressants, narcotics) or illicit substance abuse
- removal of the clitoris (also called female genital mutilation, a cultural practice in parts of Africa, the Middle East, and Asia)
Psychological causes of FOD include:
- past sexual abuse, rape, incest, or other traumatic sexual experience
- emotional abuse
- fear of becoming pregnant
- fear of rejection by partner
- fear of loss of control during orgasm
- self-image problems
- relationship problems with partner
- life stresses, such as financial worries, job loss, or divorce
- guilt about sex or sexual pleasure
- religious or cultural beliefs about sex
- other mental health disorders such as major depression
FOD is more likely to have a psychological, rather than a physical cause. Inadequate time spent in foreplay, inadequate arousal, lack of appropriate sexual stimulation, poor sexual communication with a partner, and failure to continue with stimulation for an adequate length of time may cause failure to climax, but are not considered causes of FOD.
Inability to have an orgasm, discontent with the quality of orgasms, and the ability to have orgasms only with one type of stimulation are common sexual complaints among women. Some studies have found that about half of all women experience some orgasmic difficulties, but not of all these difficulties are considered FOD. About 50% of women experience orgasm through direct clitoral stimulation but not during intercourse, thus not meeting the criteria for a diagnosis of FOD. About 10% of women never experience an orgasm, regardless of the situation or stimulation. These women are more likely to be unmarried, young, and sexually inexperienced.
FOD is diagnosed through a medical and psychological history and history of the conditions under which orgasm fails to occur. It is especially helpful for the clinician or sex therapist to understand how long the problem has persisted, and whether it is general or situational. FOD is sometimes found in conjunction with and , making the diagnosis complex. To be diagnosed with FOD, the lack of orgasmic response must occur regularly over an extended period of time; based on the clinician's judgment, it must be less than would be reasonable based on age, sexual experience, and the adequacy of sexual stimulation. The lack of orgasm must cause emotional distress or relationship difficulties for the woman and be caused either only by psychological factors alone or by a combination of psychological and physical factors. According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA), a diagnosis of FOD is not appropriate if failure to climax is due only to physiological factors. FOD is also not diagnosed if it is a symptom of another major psychological disorder, such as depression.
When failure to reach orgasm is caused by a physical problem, the root problem is treated. In other cases, a combination of education, counseling, , and sex therapy are used—often along with directed exercises to increase stimulation and decrease inhibitions—either for the individual or for the couple. As of 2002, clinical trials are under way to investigate the effect of sildenafil (Viagra) on women's sexual response. Sildenafil has already been proved effective in helping men to attain and maintain an erection.
Sex therapists have special training to help individuals and couples focus on overcoming specific sexual dysfunctions. In , they often assign "homework" that focuses on relaxation techniques, sexual exploration, improving sexual communication, decreasing inhibitions, and increasing direct clitoral stimulation. Individually, a woman might be encouraged to masturbate either through self-stimulation or with a vibrator. In addition, Kegel exercises, which improve the strength and tone of the muscles in the genital area, may be recommended.hair brush straightener hair transplant before and after mayvenn hair olive oil for hair alt hair styles hair dye skunk hair braiding hair colors how to get hair dye off skin ash grey hair facial hair x-pression hair holiday hair harry styles hair wicks hair hair do dyson hair wrap chestnut hair color reddish brown hair curly hair salon light brown hair color revlon hair dye hair design honey blonde hair androgynous hair cuts brown hair blonde balayage wild growth hair oil how to grow hair faster ariana grande hair 2a hair men hair style black curly hair men the ordinary hair serum hair supply store near me giuliani hair dye hair coloring natural blonde hair how to.curl hair with straightener hair color keratin hair treatment hair styles for short hair long curly hair men oil for hair growth crochet hair blonde hair with highlights black hair with blonde highlights medium blonde hair curly hair with bangs ingrown pubic hair hair cuttery highlights for hair hair glue hair brown and blonde hair middle part hair curly hair highlights short hair with bangs black hair anime girl hair removal cream hair color trends 2021 best nose hair trimmer curly hair salon orange hair dye dirty blonde hair short hair with bangs jet black hair hair brush straightener glosser for hair hair ideas hair types how to.curl hair with straightener type 4 hair gisou hair oil mens hair styles bleached hair auburn hair color revlon one step hair dryer best shampoo for hair growth hair cutting places naturally hair products arctic fox hair dye hair color trends 2021 iroiro hair dye brunette hair color the hair shop fine hair short hair wedding hairstyles selena quintanilla short hair dark hair with highlights burgundy hair color short hair styles infected hair follicle thin hair shoulder length hairstyles scene hair pink hair anime girl hair brushes plaited hair ion hair color haircuts for long hair red ombre hair